Foot and Ankle
Foot & Ankle Anatomy
How does the Foot & Ankle joint work?
Find out more in this web based movie.
Achilles Tendon Rupture
Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping.
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A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments, which connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the joint or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump.
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Common Toe Deformities
Anatomically the foot is divided into the forefoot, mid foot and hind foot. The Forefoot has 4 small toes called phalanges and 1 large toe called the hallux or big toe. Phalanges have 3 bones and 3 joints, while the big toe has 2 bones and 2 joints.
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Plantar fasciitis refers to inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that lies at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toe and forms the arch of your foot.
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Foot and Ankle Pain
The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons and muscles.
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Diabetic Foot Disorders
Diabetes is a chronic condition that is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetic patients are at a high risk for developing chronic wounds, especially in the feet.
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Foot and Ankle Arthritis
Arthritis is inflammation resulting from the degeneration of cartilage surrounding joints of bones causing pain, swelling and stiffness, and restricted movement.
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A bunion is a bony protuberance that appears on the external surface of especially the big toe, making the toe angle toward the adjacent toe. It is an extra bone and a fluid-filled sac that grows at the base of the big toe.
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Bunion is a foot deformity that changes the shape of the foot causing the big toe to turn inward, towards the second toe leading to pain and inflammation. A bunion is caused by incorrect footwear, joint damage, arthritis, and genetic disposition.
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Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.
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Ankle Joint Replacement
The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot and provides free movement to the foot. It is formed by connecting the bones of the lower leg, tibia and fibula, with the talus, or ankle bone.
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Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.
- Achilles Tendinitis
- Additional Resources on the Foot/Leg
- Adult Acquired Flatfoot
- Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
- Athletic Shoes
- Bowed Legs
- Broken/Fractured Ankle
- Bunion Surgery
- Claw Toe
- Diabetic (Charcot) Foot
- Flexible Flatfoot in Children
- Footwear Guide
- Fracture of the Talus
- Calcaneus (Heel Bone) Fractures
- Hammer Toe
- Heel Pain
- Tight Shoes and Foot Problems
- Ingrown Toenail
- Lisfranc (Midfoot) Injury
- Morton’s Neuroma
- Plantar Fasciitis and Bone Spurs
- Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction
- Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle
- Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures
- Sprained Ankle
- Stiff Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus)
- Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle
- Toe and Forefoot Fractures